DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD SOIL TEST METHOD AND RATIONAL CULTIVATION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE SOIL DEGRADATION

Summary

It is a serious problem in agricultural production when soil moisture content at the time of tillage and sowing is not optimal. This condition can be partially addressed by combining agrotechnical operations, so that not a single operation is missed. With machines capable of performing connected operations, the necessary tasks are carried out at times as close to optimal as possible. The application of precision technology for tillage and seeding is essential to maintain competitiveness both in terms of yield increase and cost reduction. However, the effects of these factors can only be quantified with a harvester that follows the amount harvested right at the site.

During the examination of the statistical relationships of yield maps and other crop-forming elements prepared from the yield data to be collected, it can be established that the structure of the soil plays a decisive role on fertility. Tillage affects the condition of the soil, hence improper execution can lead to fragmentation of structural elements and a decrease in gravitational pors. Porosity, aggregate stability, crumb stability become weakened, compacted horizons from tilling are formed, in extreme cases these can form a stable solid layer, which prevents rooting of the plant. While the traditional technological system uses a large amount of diesel due to the many rounds, in the case of technologies that switched threads without rotation, diesel consumption can be significantly reduced while increasing yields. In addition, traditional technology does not take into account differences in productivity within the field. This is also true for crop density, nutrient management and harvesting. The management programmes of the main crops need to be renewed, which include the application of the achievements of precision technology and the introduction of soil protection cultivation systems.

In order to achieve these objectives, the plants to be tested and the sites of the experiments are identified. The farmers participating in the consortium farm under heterogeneous soil conditions, making it possible to carry out studies on different soil types. After the identification of the experimental sites and preliminary background work, on-site measurements of the physical state of the soil will begin, the aim of which is to create a site-specific GIS database and its maps. Plant tests are started for all plants covered. The applicability of different tillage systems is being examined, with special regard to organic matter management. In the case of the plants under consideration, the proposed crop management programme will be implemented. Already in the first year, the tillage, seeding and harvesting machines purchased on the entire territory of the consortium’s farms carry out the data collection necessary for the implementation of precision farming.

Modern moisture-saving and structure-saving systems can be developed for the plants under examination. We demonstrate the effects of organic matter replenishment aimed at improving soil condition. Within this framework, we evaluate the positive effects of organic fertilisers on soil structure by evenly mixing stem residues, stem and root system of secondary crops, and presenting their soil moisture preservation effect are considered the main results. With the help of yield measurement, we define increasingly accurate crop management programme zones, which facilitate the further development of our later differentiated input material application activities. With the help of row to row spacing differentiation, it is possible to compact only row spaces as a consequence of following the same tracks each time. Thus, in the 3rd year under review, the formation of soil structure starts in the rows, which we intend to present with the test results. In the future, soil-friendly, moisture-saving farming needs to be spread over an increasing area in Hungary. The technology of cultivation of arable crops may be extended in the future to other crops grown in arable land.

With further studies, the technology can be adapted to dry farming and irrigated conditions. In the case of irrigation, moisture-saving tillage not only increases the efficiency of irrigation but also leads to a reduction in the costs of crop management technology.

Project

REGION

North Great Plain region, Hajdú-Bihar county

CONSURTIUM

Discovery Center | Gödöllő

FUNDING

Rural Development Program
Own resources

MEMBERS
Balogh Farm Kft. | Farmer
Geo-terra 96 Kft. | Farmer
Szabó Károly | Farmer
Karcza Gábor | Farmer
Tikász Tamás | Farmer
Dr. Ferencsik Sándor | Researcher
Dr. Dobos Endre Zsolt | Researcher

BUDGET
324 891 eFt

Milestones

2017

Submission

Submission of the application to the adjudicating authority.
2019

Acceptance

Acceptance of submitted application. Purchase of machinery and input materials for all producers.
2020

Sampling

Carrying out soil sampling. Recommendations are made based on laboratory results of soil samples, yield maps of previous years and NDVI surveys. The machines purchased for the project start to be used, which is an important part of data collection. In the second half of 2020, the preparation of the experimental areas began.
2021

Data Collection

The cultivation method defined on the basis of the proposals starts for each grower. Year-round data collection and monitoring takes place. At the end of the growing season, the year and its experiences are discussed with each grower in order to continue the experiment. Based on the data and experience gathered, a pilot plan for the coming year is prepared.
2022

Statistics

A third pilot year is launched, based on data collection from the previous period Based on the experience of previous growing seasons, sufficient data are already available to systematise statistical data. A study is carried out on the project. Open professional field visit.
2023

Publication

Publication of professional publications based on the project. Patent litigation. Project closure.

Media

Presentation No.01.

Presentation No.02.